Tuesday, August 25, 2020

ESL Conversation Lesson Points of View

ESL Conversation Lesson Points of View Perspectives is a middle of the road to cutting edge level conversation exercise that requests that understudies rate their assessments from one to ten (1 - unequivocally concur/10 - firmly dissent) on various disputable issues. The worksheet can be utilized in various manners, and for various purposes during any course. The following is a proposal for coordinating this conversation plan into your exercise. Point: Helping understudies express their suppositions and clarify their reasoningActivity: A study hall review on various disputable subjects.Level: Intermediate to cutting edge Framework Points of View Discussion Circulate Points of View sheet. Request that understudies rate their feelings from one to ten: 1 - unequivocally concur/10 - firmly disagree.Divide understudies into little gatherings and request that they talk about their reactions to the statements.Listen in on the different gatherings and take notes on basic language botches while understudies are introducing their different purposes of view.At the finish of the gathering conversations, compose some of the most widely recognized missteps on the board and request that different understudies right the mistakes.Make sure to recommend standard equations for expressing ones supposition if these recipes don't come up during the amendment procedure (for example as I would like to think, Do you truly believe that, As far as Im concerned, etc.)As a class, experience each point requesting somebody who (moderately) unequivocally consents to clarify their perspective. Do likewise for somebody who (generally) emphatically can't help contradict ing the statement.As a subsequent movement, request that understudies compose a short structure on one of the announcements. Perspectives Worksheet Rate your supposition from one to ten on the accompanying articulations. 1 emphatically concur/10 firmly oppose this idea Committing errors in English is OK insofar as individuals comprehend you.My companions should originate from a similar social foundation as I do.It is difficult to have an upbeat family life and an effective career.War isn't a possibility for settling worldwide disputes.Multinational worldwide organizations are to be faulted for most issues on the planet today.Women will never be equivalent to men in the workplace.Marriage is obsolete. There is no requirement for state or church endorsement or acknowledgment of a partnership.Gay marriage is wrong.The capital punishment is adequate in some cases.Celebrities win an excess of money.Foreigners ought not be permitted to vote.The government is liable for ensuring that all residents of a nation have at any rate a base living pay job.Quality of life will significantly improve in the future.Teachers give a lot of homework.Military administration ought to be mandatory.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

What to Expect in Graduate School

What's in store in Graduate School You prepared and looked for encounters to build a strong master's level college application. Through difficult work, passing marks, a strong GRE score, heavenly letters of suggestion, and incalculable graduate school interviews, you won admission to aâ program. Set yourself up for whats next including quite a while of extraordinary research, examining, and proficient development. How is graduate school truly? Here are five things to expect as an alumni student.â 1. Successful Graduate Students are Autonomous Graduate school is less organized than school. It requires free reasoning and the activity to make sense of things all alone. You may need to pick your own counselor. It will be up to you, with a little direction, to cut out a territory of research and discover a postulation or exposition point. You will likewise need to network and make proficient contacts which will be basic to progressing in your field and finding a new line of work after graduation. New graduate understudies frequently trust that somebody will instruct them. For achievement in graduate school, be set up to assume responsibility for your own training. 2. Graduate School isn't Like Undergrad Doctoral and aces programs are not at all like school. On the off chance that youre considering graduate school on the grounds that youre doing great in school and appreciate school, know that graduate school will probably be altogether different than the last at least 16 years of school youve experienced. Graduate study, particularly at the doctoral level, resembles an apprenticeship. Rather than sitting in class for several hours every day and afterward being free, graduate school is progressively similar to an occupation that possesses the entirety of your time. Youll spend a lot of your time taking a shot at investigate in your consultant or coaches lab. 3. Graduate School Means Research While school revolved around classes, graduate school bases on investigate. Indeed, youll take courses, yet the reason for doctoral instruction is to figure out how to direct research. The accentuation is on figuring out how to assemble data and develop information autonomously. As an analyst or teacher, quite a bit of your activity will comprise of social affair materials, perusing, considering what youve read, and planning studies to test your thoughts. Graduate school, particularly doctoral training, is frequently groundwork for a profession in explore. 4. Doctoral Study Takes Time A doctoral program is ordinarily a five-to eight-year responsibility. Ordinarily, the principal year is the most organized year with classes and loads of perusing. Most understudies are required to breeze through a lot of extensive tests at different focuses in their program so as to proceed. 5. The Dissertation Determines Your Final Outcome The doctoral paper is the reason for procuring a Ph.D. Youll invest a lot of energy looking for a proposition theme and counselor, and afterward finding out about your subject to set up your paper proposition. When the proposition is acknowledged by your paper board of trustees (normally made out of five employees that you and your counselor have picked dependent on their insight into the field), youre allowed to start your examination study. Youll plug away for a considerable length of time or frequently years until youve directed your exploration, made a few ends, and reviewed everything. After youve completed, youll set up your exposition safeguard: an introduction of your examination to your paper panel where youll answer questions and guard the legitimacy of your work. On the off chance that all works out in a good way, youll leave with another title and some extraordinary letters behind your name: Ph.D.

Sunday, August 9, 2020

What is the Legal Age to Work

What is the Legal Age to Work As one grows older, they find that their needs and requirements in order to live a comfortable life also grow.By the time someone is in their teens, their social life becomes important and their expenses increase.In a bid to foot their expenses without having to rely on their parents for an allowance, a teenager might decide to get a job.If you are a teenager thinking about getting a job, the good news is that many employers love teenage workers.Teens are motivated and they have a lot of energy, and you will therefore find lots of employers who are eager to hire teenagers for summer jobs and other part-time jobs.In addition, minor workers generally have the same rights as adult workers.However, before you start sending out applications, it is good to note that there are some laws and regulations that determine the kind of job you can apply for based on your age.These laws and regulations are put in place in order to protect children from working in jobs that may be potentially danger ous or harmful to their health and to ensure that the jobs do not interfere with the child’s education.If you are a teenager looking for work, understanding these laws and regulations will help ensure that you have a positive work experience.Most of the employment restrictions in regards to age are covered under the Fair Labor Standards Act, though many states also have their own independent child labor laws.THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Also known as the FLSA, this is an Act that provides guidelines regarding the employment of individuals who have not attained the age of 18.Enacted in 1938, the FLSA sets hours worked, recordkeeping, wage, overtime, and safety requirements for minors working in jobs that are covered by the act.The rules and regulations set out in the FLSA vary depending on the age of the individual and the kind of job involved.Aside from providing guidelines regarding the employment of minors based on their particular age and the kind of job involved, the FLSA also protects minors from working in jobs that have been declared by the Secretary of Labor to be hazardous, such as those involving operation of motor-driven equipment, mining and excavation operations, or those involving exposure to radioactive substances.In addition, the FLSA has some laws and regulations that only apply to certain types of jobs, such as agricultural employment, and several exceptions to some of the general rules stipulated within the statute.As a general rule, the FLSA the age of 14 as the minimum working age for most types of non-agricultural jobs.In other words, minors below the age of 14 are only allowed to work in agricultural jobs.However, there are some exceptions to this rule.Aside from agricultural work, minors below the age of 14 can work in any job if the business is owned by their parents, provided the business is in a non-hazardous industry.In addition, minors below the age of 14 can be employed in jobs such as theatrical productions or performing on tel evision, radio, or movies, newspaper delivery, performing minor chores around a private home, or babysitting.While children between the age of 14 and 15 are legally allowed to work, there are limits to the times of day that they can work and the number of hours they are allowed to work.Generally, they can only work for only up to three hours per day for school days (up to 18 hours per school week), or up to eight hours per day for non-school days (up to 40 hours per week).In addition, minors between the age of 14 and fifteen cannot take shifts during school hours. During the school year (between Labor Day and May 31), children in this age bracket can only work in the hours between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m.During the summer (between June 1 and Labor Day), children within this age bracket can work between 7 a.m. and 9 p.m.There is one exception to the above rules concerning minors between the age of 14 and 15.They can work more hours than stipulated above if they are working for a work-study program through the DOL (Department of Labor) or for a career exploration program that is sponsored by the state.Once children reach the age of 16, many of the employment restrictions are lifted.For instance, the hourly minimums are lifted, allowing these minors to work as many hours per week as they would like.However, they are still restricted against working in jobs considered hazardous by the Secretary of Labor or using certain types of equipment.For instance, while food service is not considered to be a hazardous industry, 16 and 17 year olds working in food service establishments are not allowed to hold jobs that require them to operate power driven meat processing machines, power driven bakery machines, or commercial mixers.Once an individual reaches the age of 18, all employment restrictions are lifted and the person can legally work the number of hours they work and in whatever industry they want to work.Since the individual is no longer a minor, adult employment rights and rules become applicable to them.Aside from the FLSA, many states also have their own child labor laws that may have a higher minimum age for employment compared to the FLSA.In states where this is the case, the law with the higher minimum standard automatically applies.It is also good to note that any non-agricultural employers are also required to post a Minimum Wage Poster issued by the Department of Labor.The poster, which lists the federal minimum wage and minimum age requirements among other information, should be posted in a prominent place at the workplace.AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENTWe saw above that 14 is the minimum working age for most types of non-agricultural jobs.When it comes to agricultural jobs, however, different age requirements come into play, though the kind of work and hours of work permitted still vary according to the particular age of the individual.Before we get into the agricultural employment restrictions, it is good to note that these restrictions are also s ubject to parental exception.In other words, minors can be employed in a farm owned or operated by their parents regardless of the minor’s age.When it comes to agricultural employment, there isn’t really a minimum legal working age.Minors under the age of 12 may be employed on a farm provided there is parental consent, they work outside of school hours and provided the employees at the farm are exempt from federal minimum wage provisions.Minors between the ages of 12 and 13 may also be employed on agricultural jobs outside of school hours and provided there is written parental consent or the minor’s parent or caregiver is also employed within the same farm.Once they reach the age of 14, minors can be employed outside of school hours in any agricultural job, except those considered hazardous by the Secretary of Labor.In the above provisions, the term school hours refers to the hours set by the official school calendar of the district in which the minor lives while working in an agricultural position.The FLSA prohibits any exceptions being made that would allow students to be individual children to be released from school early so that they can work in agriculture.However, children can work in agricultural jobs before or after school hours, during weekends, and on any other days when they are not required to attend school.For instance, if the district where a minor lives while working in an agricultural job has set the school hours to be between 9.00 a.m. and 3.00 p.m. the minor is not allowed to work in an agricultural job between 9.00 a.m. and 3.00 p.m. on a school day.However, they can work before this time block or after.The requirements that minors should not work in an agricultural position during school hours applies to all minors living within the district, even if they do not attend public school.This means that even minors who attend private school, those who are schooled at home and those who have completed their formal education are not allowed to work during these hours.Minors who have reached the age of 16 are legally allowed to be employed in any agricultural occupation, including those that the Secretary of Labor has declared as hazardous.There are no hourly requirements for minors above the age of 16 in regards to agricultural employment. They can work at any time, including during school hours.Hazardous Agricultural OccupationsWe have seen above that minors under the age of 16 are not under any circumstances allowed to be employed in agricultural occupations that may be hazardous to their health and well-being.According to the Secretary of Labor, agricultural jobs that are considered hazardous or dangerous to minors below the age of 16 include:Operating tractors that exceed 20 PTO horsepower, or any other occupation that may require the minor to connect or disconnect any parts or implements to or from such tractors.Operating or providing assistance in the operation of any of the following machines:Hay mower, potato digger, cotton picker, corn picker, mobile pea viner, grain combine, hay baler, or forage harvester.Auger conveyer, forage blower, crop dryer, feed grinder, or the unloading mechanism of self-unloading non-gravity type trailer or wagon.Power post driver, power post hole diggers or rotary tiller.Operating or providing assistance in the operation of any of the following machinesA trencher or any other earthmoving machineryForkliftA potato combineA power-driven circular chain or band saw.Working on the farm in a stall, pen, or yard occupied by a:Cow with a newborn calf, or a sow with suckling piglets.A bull, stud horse, or boar that is being reared for breeding purposes.Working in an occupation that requires the felling, skidding, bucking, loading or unloading of timber with a butt diameter exceeding 6 inches.Doing any jobs that may require the use of a ladder or scaffold (such as repairing, painting, picking fruit, pruning trees, building structures, and so on) at a height exceeding 2 0 feet.Driving an automobile, truck, or bus to transport passengers or riding on a tractor as a helper or a passenger.Working inside:A grain, forage, or fruit storage that may contain a toxic or oxygen deficient atmosphere.A silo at any time when a top unloading device is in operating position within the silo or within the first two weeks after silage has been added in the silo, or when a tractor is in operation within the silo for packing purposes.A manure pit.Applying or in any way handling agricultural chemicals that might be toxic (including return or disposal of empty containers, cleaning and decontaminating equipment used in the application, or in any other way helping in the application of such chemicals). The chemicals referred to in this case are those that may be labelled with the word “warning,” or “poison,” or those with a drawing of the danger sign (skull and crossbones).Using or in any way handling a blasting agent, including but not limited to blasting caps, b lack powder, dynamite, primer cord, or sensitized ammonium nitrate.Applying, transferring, transporting, or in any way handling anhydrous ammonia.EMPLOYMENT BY PARENTSYou might have noticed that there is a parental exception for age requirements in both agricultural and non-agricultural jobs.This is because the minimum age requirements stipulated by the Fair Labor Standards Act do not apply to minors employed by their parents or caregivers/guardians.In other words, a minor can be employed by their parent in any occupation regardless of their age, except for occupations in manufacturing and mining where anyone below the age of 18 years is not allowed to work.Many state child labor laws also have similar exceptions when it comes to minors working for their parents and guardians.OTHER RESTRICTIONSAside from the restrictions discussed previously, minors who are 16 and 17 years old are restricted from working in or with the following: cranes, excavators, logging, roofing, mining, manufac turing masonry, explosives, power saws, transport trucks, and radioactive substances.In addition to all the above, 14 and 15 year olds are also restricted from working in or with the following: warehousing, manufacturing, ladder work, baking, janitorial services, public utilities, amusement park attendants, washing windows, and loading trucks.DOCUMENTATION REQUIRED TO WORKSome states will require any person below the age of 18 to have working papers before they can legally be allowed to work.The working papers are legal documents that show that a minor has been certified as employable. They are usually two types of certifications:Age CertificationEmployment CertificationThe rules and regulations regarding the need for working papers will vary depending on your state.In some states, anyone below the age of 18 needs the papers before they can get employment.In other states, the working papers are only required of people below the age of 16. Yet in some other states, you can get hired without the need for working papers, regardless of your age.If you are a teenager looking for work, you can find out whether you need working papers by visiting your state Department of Labor or consulting your school guidance office. Some schools even help students in obtaining these papers.THE HISTORY OF US CHILD LABOR LAWSThe United States has not always had child labor laws.The laws were developed at some point in order to prevent minors from exploitation through child labor.The history of these laws shows how the values of the nation have changed over time.Today, child labor laws are seen as a necessity in guaranteeing that children get education. They help ensure that work experiences enhance the educational process, rather than hindering it.When the first European settlers came to America, they brought with them some new social values, many of which still remain in place even today. One of these is the value of work in society.The European settlers equated idleness with negli gence and irresponsibility, and so it became a norm to have children help out their parents in the farm or with their trade to help support the family.In 1641, a law was passed in Massachusetts Bay Colony requiring families to provide their children and apprentices with education.According to this law, children were supposed to be taught how to read and some form of trade.The idea behind this law was that by providing children with education, it prepared them to grow into hard-working and industrious adults who would positively contribute to the society.Families that could not afford to provide their children with education were forced to have their children enter apprenticeships at young ages so that they could also get educated.With the rise of the Industrial Revolution, America transitioned from a predominantly rural nation to a predominantly urban nation. More people started working in factories than were working in farms.Driven by the need for huge profits, many factories turne d to women and children as a source of cheap labor.Since children could not speak up for themselves, and considering that many families were still dependent on the meager earnings of their children to supplement the family income, the exploitation of children increased while their working conditions grew deplorable over time.Minors, some as young as 6 years, worked for over 12 hours in dangerous and unhealthy conditions for paltry wages.When this became too bad, people started challenging the deplorable working conditions and calling for better treatment of children. In 1836, the State of Connecticut passed a law that made it mandatory for children to attend school for 3 months every year.This social awareness continued growing, and towards the end of the 19th century, over 1600 laws had been passed by different states either limiting or abolishing child labor.However, this did not change the situation much, since many of these laws did not apply to everyone, such as immigrants, whi le others were simply ignored.In the early 20th century, there was renewed fight for social reform.People felt that it was the responsibility of the federal government to protect children, and many women started protesting against children working in factories.Two of the strongest women leading this activism were Marry Harris “Mother” Jones and Florence Kelly.These two women organized numerous protests asking for President Theodore Roosevelt to ban child labor, as well as boycotts of any goods that relied on child labor for production.Their efforts paid off. By 1913, most states, except just 9, had passed laws declaring 14 as the minimum legal age for working in a factory.Still, children were not fully protected from child labor until the Fair Labor Standards Act was enacted in 1938. Today, the country has changed drastically in regards to child labor.Many families have become fairly wealthy, so they are no longer forced to rely on their children to help supplement the family in come.Instead, today majority of the teenagers working today do it primarily to earn their own sending money.WRAPPING UPIf you are a teenager looking for work, you might be wondering whether you are within legal working age.If you are above 14 years, you are legally allowed to work, provided you do not work within school hours and provided you are not seeking employment within industries deemed by the Secretary of Labor to be hazardous.If you are 16 year or older, you can work as many hours as you look, although you are still not allowed to work within industries considered hazardous by the Secretary of Labor.If you are looking for employment within agriculture, you can start working at a much earlier age, though you will need to follow the regulations relating to agricultural employment as explained within this article.Finally, it is good to keep in mind that these regulations are put in place, not to prevent you from legally being employed, but to protect you from being exploited b y employers.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Civil War Failed African American - 902 Words

â€Å"The attempts in the Reconstruction period 1865 to 1877 to solve problems caused by the Civil War failed African American.† To what extent do you agree with this statement? 1. Introduction 1. Background: 1. Reconstruction was not only the plan to rebuild the U.S. after the Civil War, but also the process the federal government used to readmit the Confederate States 2. It was complicated because Lincoln ad Johnson had different ideas on how Reconstruction should be handled. 3. Lincoln had his ten percent plan- a confederate state can be readmitted into the union if ten percent of their population took an oath of allegiance. 4. Johnson insisted that the remaining Confederate states must withdraw their secession, swear allegiance to the Union, annul Confederate war debts, and ratify the Thirteenth amendment. 5. Many of the Reconstruction plans were focused on helping improve the lives of African Americans and giving them rights. Ex: Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments, Freedmen’s Bureau, and Civil Rights Act of 1866 2. Thesis: Even though African Americans were given many freedoms and rights due to laws, amendments, and acts of congress during Reconstruction, the rise of white supremacy groups, the passing of the Amnesty Act and end of the Freedmen’s Bureau, and Supreme Court decisions that undermined the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments caused Reconstruction to collapse and fail in giving African American the rights intended for them. 2. Though AfricanShow MoreRelatedAfrican Americans in The Civil War Essay656 Words   |  3 PagesAfrican Americans were very questionable at first in the Civil War. The Union Navy had been already been accepting African American volunteers. Frederick Douglass thought that the military would help the African Americans have equal rights if they fought with them. Many children helped in the Civil War also, no matter how old they were. Because the African Americans were unfavorable, black units were not used in combat as they might have been. Nevertheless, the African Americans fought in numerousRead MoreReconstruction Of The United States1181 Words   |  5 Pagesconstitutions, pledged their loyalty to the United States government, and accepted the newly Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments. However, reconstruction inevitably failed the South. The legislation of Radical Republicans failed to give protection to freed slaves from further persecution of whites; and it also failed to fundamentally refabricate the social atmosphere of the south. Once President Rutherford B. Hayes implemented the removal of all federal troops from southern states, empathizersRead MoreHow Do You Account for the Failure of Reconstruction to Bring Social and Economic Equality of Opportunity to the Former Slaves766 Words   |  4 PagesAfter the Civil War, the southern soldiers were going back to devastated cities, destroyed railroads, and many cities were burned to the ground as a result of Sherman’s march from sea to sea. After the Civil War occurred, the slaves were given freedom from their owners, and slavery was banned. That attempt at reconstruction was not a complete fail, but it took a little bit of time for America to give social and economic equality to slaves. There were many attempts made by several different presidentsRead MoreThe American Civil War And The Civil Rights Movement1725 Words   |  7 PagesAfter the American Civil War (1861-1865), major c hanges which were crucial to the establishment of African Americans in the American society took place. Before the bloody war, slaves were comprised of thirteen percent of the total population of the United States. The treatments they receive from their masters ranged from generous to abusive. The issue of slavery was becoming more and more apparent in social, economic, and most importantly political aspects of the country. In fact, even before theRead MoreThe American Civil War Essay662 Words   |  3 PagesThe Civil War was a war between the North and the South after several states in the south seceded after Lincolns Presidency. The war first started off as states rights but as the war went on and progressed the war was fighting to end slavery. African Americans had an important impact on the Civil War. There was individual African Americans who made an important impact in the civil war. For example Frederick Douglass he was known for being a escape slave and a good public speaker for his effortsRead MoreThe American Civil War1418 Words   |  6 PagesGuns fired, smoke lingering in the air, people dying. The American Civil War had a huge impact on the United States. Two compromises took place before the start of the Civil War. These compromises include the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850. The Missouri Compromise dealt with the crisis in 1819 over Missouri entering the Union as a slave state. The compromise was â€Å"the first major crisis over slavery, and it shattered a tacit agreement between the two regions that had been in placeRead MoreThe Reconciliation of the North and South after the Civil War1186 Words   |  5 PagesAndrew Johnson signed a Proclamation which promised order and peace to the United States on August 20th, 1865, the Civil War was formally end ed. Though the Confederates had been dominated, there was still a battle to preserve the Southern lifestyle against the impeding Northern republican ideals. President Lincoln had plans to peacefully restore the country to the Union it was prior to the war, but his assassination created set-backs to his plan. While both the North and the South were working toward reconciliationRead MoreWhy Did Reconstruction Fail870 Words   |  4 Pageshistorically known as the time in America, shortly after the Civil War, in which the United States attempted to readdress the inequalities, especially of slavery and many other economic, social and politically issues including the poor relationship between the North and the South of America. These problems were highly significant in America, and a variety of groups in government tried to resolve these problems, but this only led to the Civil War. Unfortunately although there were numerous new constitutionsRead MoreReconstructions Failure809 Words   |  4 Pageswas clear to people in the late 1800s that the Civil War caused many national problems along with problems within the union. However, the Civil War assuaged many problems for the country. For example, slavery was abolished, the supremacy of the national government had been confirmed, and secession had been proved false. Some people may believe that the main reason why the congress’ reconstruction efforts to ensure equal rights to the freedmen failed was because virtually no one in America thoughtRead MoreShort Term Effects Of Reconstruction Essay982 Words   |  4 Pages The end of the Civil War produced many short-term and long-term effects. After the Civil War through 1896, the North and South tried to reunite the United States to avoid being attacked by other countries. While the government tried to solve the problems with rebuilding the nation, their solutions were short term and failed to address the problem. There were many disagreements about Reconstruct ion that lead to conflict in the government and in the South. There were many plans that the government

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Invisible Man By Ellison - 862 Words

In response to police brutality, The Invisible Man was written by Ellison demonstrated that through his life racism was entirely present. Ellison, in fact, was faced with police brutality throughout the novel. Ellison wrote a scene in which his narrator dealt with police brutality after giving a speech at an eviction. The police threatened to shoot him and beat all of them. Ellison wrote that his character had known it was due to the racism during the time period. Even so, the rest of the novel involved rebellion groups in which responded to the police brutality and racism. Ellison wrote the book to demonstrate the racism and brutality within society for African Americans. Even so, the effect of police brutality was involved within the book. This made other African-American questioned their identity as to why they were being beaten and abused. Ellison’s work addressed the response to other police brutalities in earlier times. Then, on January 28, 2015 an African-American man was driving and he stopped at a traffic light while Officer Melendez pulled him over. Dent resisted arrest because he had a suspended license, and then Officer Melendez started to beat him to the ground. Dent was hit in the head fifteen times then the officer placed him in a chock hole causing him to lose his breath and then began to tase him after he was already on the ground lastly the officer bang his head on the hood of the car and Mr. dent Began to bleed from his head. On the police dash cam you canShow MoreRelatedThe Invisible Man By. Ellison1383 Words   |  6 PagesRaplh Ellison’s Invisible Man is an example of African American who is dealing with racism against African Americans in the USA. The main character, the narrator, go through the novel with nameless which allows him to show his life experiences with a certain degree of detachment, yet, at the same time offering the reader to see his unique perception of the events that take place throughout the novel. Invisible Man Ralph Ellison filled theme, make a deeper reading of the text is an interesting taskRead MoreInvisible, Invisible Man, By Ralph Ellison1994 Words   |  8 PagesInvisible Race and Gender in Invisible Man, by Ralph Ellison In Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison, the unnamed narrator shows us through the use motifs and symbols how racism and sexism negatively affect the social class and individual identity of the oppressed people. Throughout the novel, the African American narrator tells us the story of his journey to find success in life which is sabotaged by the white-dominated society in which he lives in. Along his journey, we are also shown how the patriarchyRead MoreInvisible Man By Ralph Ellison1366 Words   |  6 Pagesfighter left standing, amidst unbridled carnage. The titular narrator of Ralph Ellison s novel Invisible Man, is no stranger to those experiences. In the beginning, he is forced to fight several other black boxers for the amusement of many heckling, white spectators. Through the imaginative use of objects, symbols, allusions, and the actions, thoughts, and purposes of the spectators, pugilists and risquà © entertainment, Ellison seeks to express a powerful image of American race rel ations and women sRead MoreInvisible Man By Ralph Ellison1277 Words   |  6 PagesInvisible Man, by Ralph Ellison, is a story about a young African American man whose color renders him invisible. The theme of racism as a hurdle to individual identity is present throughout the story in a variety of examples. From the beginning of the novel the theme of identity is evident as the narrator states, â€Å"All my life I had been looking for something, and everywhere I turned someone tried to tell me what I was† (Ellison, p. 1254). In the midst of living in a racist American society the speakersRead MoreThe Invisible Man By Ralph Ellison3051 Words   |  13 Pagesportrayed through the narrator’s, the invisible man, journey through life. The problems with society are foreshadowed by the racism and the symbols of the color white presented in the paint plant. â€Å"The Invisible Man† by Ralph Ellison depicts the African Americans struggle to be viewed as an equal membe r of society through the narrators struggles through life to discover his individuality or place in society while the white man or the community conspires to â€Å"keep the black man down†. The story follows theRead MoreThe Invisible Man By Ralph Ellison977 Words   |  4 PagesBook Review: Invisible Man Invisible Man is an American Literature novel published by Ralph Ellison in 1952. The novel traces the experiences of a young college black man growing up in Harlem, New York. Attempting to succeed in a predominantly white society, the narrator encounters shocks and disillusionments from being expelled from college to hiding in an underground hole to protect himself from the people above. He lives a repressed life as an â€Å"Invisible Man† for he believes that society ignoresRead MoreThe Invisible Man By Ralph Ellison Essay1613 Words   |  7 Pagesvary from person to person, but often members of the same race are subject to the same expectations. Ralph Ellison’s novel Invisible Man explores the intersections of race and power, especially in a society that is very community oriented, as seen when the actions of an individual are reflected on other members of the race as well. Although Ellison’s protagonist â€Å"the Invisible Man† and other black men d escribed in the novel, on several occasions behave how they are supposed to, however their superiorsRead MoreInvisible Man By Ralph Ellison1032 Words   |  5 Pagesmodern society some people leads, and others will follow. Subjects will conditionally generate their own ideas and realize these ideas rather than just be assigned tasks that question their beliefs. The author Ralph Ellison illustrates it best. Ellison’s realistic fiction Invisible Man perpetuates the manifestation of manipulation over the minorities in this society. As the narrator embraces every identity he has been given, he starts to become more independent, and a leader in his community. WithRead MoreThe Invisible Man By Ralph Ellison Essay2164 Words   |  9 Pagestrying to rebel against the status quo. Protest literature emerged from the Harlem Renaissance in the 1920’s to 1930’s. Protest literature is used to address real socio-political issues and express objections against them. In his novel, The Invisible Man, Ralph Ellison exposes the racism in society by focusing on the culture, in regards to the expected assimilation of African Americans and how the time period largely influenced the mistreatment of the African American population. He also uses symbolsRead MoreInvisible Man By Ralph Ellison1246 Words   |  5 Pagesauthor of Invisible Man, Ralph Ellison, was born March 1st, 1914, and died April 16, 1994. He was born in Oklahoma City and named after Ralph Waldo Emerson, a famous journalist and poet. When Ellison was 3, his father died of a work-related accident, leaving his mother to care for him and his younger brother. As a young boy, he al ways wanted to major in music, and he went to Tuskegee University to become a composer and performer of music. The summer before his senior year in college, Ellison went to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Variables used in Spatial and Regional models Free Essays

Introduction In Geography scale principally concerns space. Scale relates to other ideas, only can we understand scale when it is applied in respect to the totality of the landscape element. In this thesis, I plan to examine how spatial scale problems have been manipulated and resolved. We will write a custom essay sample on Variables used in Spatial and Regional models or any similar topic only for you Order Now I will assess examples of variables used in spatial and regional models at various scales and the methodological dilemmas within spatial analysis and solutions to this. I will also scrutinize the way in which we select scales and some of the trade offs needed in the future to consider continental and global scales. Finally, I argue for a better amalgamation of space and spatial scales into hierarchy supposition. Addressing scale unswervingly, the most frequent form is cartographic scale. Watson (1978) argues; â€Å"†¦ scale is a ‘geographic’ variable almost as sacred as distance† and â€Å"well developed policy has been created to balance the scale versus resolution-information content of a map† (Board 1967). Maps depict the earth’s surface; this raises the concern of how flat maps disfigure spatial relations on the earth’s surface. In turn, the use of ‘analysis’ scale, includes the use of units to measure phenomena, for data analysis and mapping. Essentially this being the scale for observing and acknowledging geographic phenomena. We can argue that this form of ‘occurrence’ scale is the ‘true’ scale of geography, analysing how geographic processes function across the World. It is accepted that a variety of scales of geographic phenomena interrelate; local economies are enclosed with regional economies and rivers are contained within larger hydrological systems for example. Therefore, conceptualizing such hierarchies can be complex for geographers, the traditional method of focusing on a single scale largely continues. Generalization has arisen as a result. This is the view that the world that surrounds us can never be studied or modelled, or represented in all of its full detail and complexity. Perceptibly, scale is of great importance due its consequences for the degree to which geographic ideas are generalized. Generalization is in effect a process of simplification; it includes aspects of collection and development of characteristics and evidence that interest us as geographers. It demonstrates the way in which a study can represent smaller pieces of earth; it tends to be more focused on fine geographic details. For example, if we were to consider the way in which a large scale map will demonstrate more features of the earth’s surface in greater detail than a small-scale map. Geography has often been held under disparagement due to its â€Å"wide nature of topics and deviating points of view† (Hart 1982). Harvey argues that â€Å"Inconvenience arising from the search for causality between human and physical environment ideas and the predictions of spatial patterns† are often discussed (Harvey 1969.) However, Clarke argues that there is a â€Å"widespread connection in terms of the spatial point of view, which cements the study of geography† (Clarke et al 1987). Examples of spatial variables include; â€Å"area, direction, range distance, spatial geometries and patterns, isolation, diffusion, spatial connectivity, spatial associations and scale† (Abler et al. 1971). Mitchelson has described these variables as â€Å"geographic primitives† (Mitchelson, unpublished). Geographical spatial thinking tends to oscillate between two poles as there is no clearly defined geographical or landscape space this had let to the emergence of the concepts of absolute and relative space. The shaping of geographical space is under the influence of both these poles. Harvey argues that absolute space is a synonym of emptiness, Kant supports this by saying that â€Å"space may exist for its own sake independent of matter. Space just ‘is’ and should be viewed as a ‘container for elements of the earth’s surface† (Harvey 1969). In other words, the job of Geography is to fill this ‘container’ with information and ideas. This sums up the Euclidian point of view of absolute scale, usually based on a defined grid system, common in conventional cartography, remote sensing and the mapping sciences. It is relatively easy to view ‘sub containers’ within a ‘container’ and to devise suitable categorization schemes. For example a CBD area may have several districts, areas, or neighbourhoods, all of which may show ever-smaller areal units. With the idea of absolute space, the conception of spatial hierarchies is comparatively uncomplicated. The relativistic point of view, involves two considerations. Initially, space exists only with reference to spatial elements and processes. The ‘relevant’ space is clear by spatial processes taking place, e.g. migration and commuting patterns, dispersion of pollutants and even the diffusion of ideas and information. Scales and regions are defined relatively by the relationship between or amongst spatial patterns forms and functions, processes and rates. This means space is defined in non-Euclidean terms, even â€Å"distance may be relative† (Harvey 1969). Two areas of landscape separated by a barrier may be close in absolute space but very distant in relative space when time, rates, and interactions are considered. Hence, how a functional spatial process region is difficult to map in terms of absolute space. Calls for a more broad-scale study are evident with demand for advanced techniques and applications of geographic information systems (GIS). Broad scale problems can realistically be solved by these techniques, which use absolute space almost exclusively. It has been argued that most modern work in geography involves a â€Å"relative view of space† (Harvey 1969; Abler et al. 1971) due to the spatial processes and mechanisms involved. There have been a lot of recent debates as to the â€Å"appropriate scale of analysis for various processes† (Nir 1987). However, there is an agreement between geographic scholars that changes in scale change the important relevant variables. Furthermore, Mitchelson argues that the â€Å"value of a phenomenon at a particular place is usually driven by causal processes which operate at differing scales† (Mitchelson, unpublished). We can analyse the study of human migration as an example. Often included are variables in relation to labour demand, investment and business climate, and income, i.e. these are group and structural contextual variables. In comparison, intra-urban migration models often involve the age, education and income of individuals. Similarly, looking at how water supply networks are planned in third-world countries, investigations at a national scale often involve urban and regional water demands. In contrast, at a village scale, walking time and the distance to a spout may be unsurpassed concerns. This leads on to behavioural geography, examining the use of space by individuals and the timing of this use. This approach has been termed â€Å"activity space and time space geography† (Carlstein and Thrift 1978). The most routine human activities involve the shortest spaces and time. This is reflected by the view that the â€Å"most frequent movements are of the shortest distance and demonstrate effort-minimization principles† (Zipf 1949). Thus how different spatial activities have radically different time and space scales. Spatial analysis has shown methodological problems. Tobler stated the problem of spatial correlation in his first law of geography: â€Å"near things are more related than distant things† (Tobler, 1969). This is the idea that every spatial element may be correlated. Without Tobler’s idea it could be said that the surface of the earth would appear entirely random. Spatial autocorrelation is the basis for the recognition of spatial variability e.g. ground versus water, field versus woodland, high density versus low density etc. Harvey has further argued that it is often â€Å"useful to search for the level of resolution which maximizes the spatial variability of a phenomenon†. (Harvey 1969). It has also been argued that there is inference of spatial process from spatial form and that most processes are discovered under spatial form, however, empirical results are usually scale specific. In other words â€Å"patterns which appear to be ordered at one scale may appe ar random at other scales† (Miller 1978). However, recently, rules have been developed for optimal spatial sampling and data grouping to reduce the loss of such inference, this can be found in work by Clark and Avery 1976. Watson (1978) argues that a solution to poor spatial data coverage is the â€Å"development of a model of spatial relationships that couples to hierarchical levels†. In other words, not a lot of studies in geography have combined macrospatial and mircospatial levels of analysis because of the incredibly large amount of data needed, producing very complex models. However, we already have many of the data rich variables at near global scales which can then in turn be used as the driving variables in predicting spatial patterns at much broader scales. It may be appropriate to find the appropriate constraints for the spatial hierarchies of concern in order to improve the spatial modelling aspect of Geography. Steyn argues that â€Å"disciplines concerned primarily with processes such as meteorology are able to switch scales very easily† (Steyn, 1981). In comparison, disciplines dealing with phenomenon are often restricted by the size of the actual phenomenon. For example, larger regions tend to incorporate more potential interactions and have a greater degree of centrality bias. In conclusion, the thesis reviews space and time scales from a geographers point of view. It can be found that spatial phenomena comes in a vast variety of different size classes, much work has been conducted across many orders of spatial magnitude. Despite many appeals for multiscaler research e.g. Abler 1987; Miller 1970; and Stone 1968. This is practiced very little, despite evidence that good multiscale work apparently meets data handling thresholds accurately and quickly. As various disciplines under what can be called the umbrella of environmental sciences begin to incorporate diverse spatial dimensions into their research agendas, problems with spatial scale are expected to be encountered. Many of these problems have already been recognized if not solved. Even so, it is still worth noting Clarke’s (1985) admonition, â€Å"No simple rules can automatically select the ‘proper’ scale; for attention.† Essentially, scale is the foundations upon which the home of Geography is built upon. Its various rooms are the arguments and theories behind scale, the floors are the advancements into hierarchical theory. The roof is the final piece solving the spatial dimension scale that places a shelter over Geographers heads and covers us from the elements of inferences in scale. Bibliography Abler, R.F. 1987. What shall we sayTo whom shall we speakAnn. Assoc. Am. Geogr. Abler, R.F., Adams, J. and Gould, P. 1971. Spatial organization: the geographer’s view of the world. Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey. Board, C. 1967. Maps as models. In Models in Geography. pp. 671-726. Methuen and Co., Ltd., London. Carlstein, T. and Thrift, N. 1978. Afterword: towards a time-space structured approach to society and the environment. in Human Activity and Time Geography. pp. 225-263. Clarke, M.J., Gregory, K.J. and Gurnell, A.M. 1987. Introduction: change and continuity in physical geography. In Horizons in Physical Geography. pp. 1-5. Barnes and Noble Books, Totowa, New Jersey. Clarke, W.A.V. and Avery, K.L. 1976. The effects of data aggregation in statistical analysis. Geogr. Harvey, D. 1969. Explanation in Geography. St Martin’s Press, New York. Hart, J.F. 1982. The highest form of the geographer’s art. Ann Assoc. Am. Geogr. 72: 1-29. Miler, D.H. 1978. The factor of scale: ecosystem, landscape mosaic and region. In Sourcebook on the Environment. pp. 63-88. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Miller, D.H. 1978. The factor of scale: ecosystem, landscape mosaic and region. In Sourcebook on the Environment. pp. 63-88. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Mitchelson, R.L. Concerns About Scale, unpublished. Nir, D. 1987. Regional geography considered from the systems approach. Geoforum 18(2): 187-202. Steyn, D.G. 1981. On scales in meteorology and climatology. Clim. Bull. 39: 1-8. Stone, K.H. 1968. Scale, Scale, Scale. Econ. Geogr. 44:94. Tobler, W.R. 1969. Geographical filters and their inverses. Geogr.1:234-253. Watson, M.K. 1978. The scale problem in human geography. Geogr. Ann. 60B: 36-47. Zipf, G.K. 1949. Human behaviour and the principle of least effort. 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Saturday, May 2, 2020

Green Marketing Campaign in Fiji

Question: Discuss about the Green Marketing Campaign in Fiji. Answer: Summarizing Green Marketing Promotion It is an account of the success story in green promotion and campaign attempted by an US based company with its manufacturing unit in Fiji. In fact, the water bottle based enterprise was one of the very first companies, which ventured into the market with an innovative setup (Bowman d'Estries 2015). FIJI Water LLC was to commercialize the artesian water available in Fiji in different parts of the world. Primarily termed as Natures Best, as the water was availed one of the natural sources, which was an aquifer dated 4500 years old from the Yaqara Range of the Nakauvadra Mountains in Fiji (Jeong, Paek Lee, 2013). The annual consumption of bottled water globally accounted to more than 45 million gallon, which enabled FIJI Water LLC to rope in and sustain with their innovative and sound idea of releasing the footprint. FIJI Water LLC incorporated some strategies that helped in influencing the marker to purchase their product. The adopted strategies are: The market segmentation primarily focused on the positive impact of natural resources, which was corroborated with the health conscious group of people. It also appealed to the fitness and health experts who finally could count as an almost equal alternative to carbonated soft drinks. The objective of making drinking water as one of the trendy products was huge success among the youngsters. This was the key to its revenue and demand demographics of bottled water in USA (Fitts, 2016). The social marketing campaign was one of the major factors for the success of this campaign. This is in relation to the effective marketing within the press, in terms of advertising by fitness brands, carbon reduction promotional procedures, and celebrity promotion techniques and of its high mineral value. The skillful and smart packaging which had a blue cap along with a green body and coherent pricing, FIJI Water LLC was one of the most important determinants of the green marketing strategy. The distributional strategies with the optimum utilization of both the online and offline areas along with its promotional opportunities in various high profile events like the Oscars, with the objective of affordable luxury water ( Jones, Murray Overton, 2017). One more reason that is important is its collaboration with the Carbon Disclosure Project, which has been accepted as the healthy strategy for its PR actions, which also includes the recycling phenomenon. It itself was suggested in its tagline, every drop is green (Jones, Murray Overton, 2017). The Reaction Quality of Fiji Green Marketing Campaign The restrictions on the development of such an innovative idea of the reduction of the carbon impacts related to the bottled water products was very surprising and disappointing , therefore by the virtue of this challenge, they introduced the green marketing campaign , a unique marketing technique which will be the initial steps in protecting our environment (Jeong, Paek Lee, 2013). The attempts that are adopted by the bottled water associate; Fiji Water LLC is a very noble approach, which has been one of the important features that are to be considered while determining the success and operational policies of the enterprise. The incorporation of a healthy phenomenon is significant in nature for a corporate concern. It has eventually reacted with the surrounding agents in terms of its demand, vendor, targets, production etc. The presence of the several beneficial structures, which are necessary for the survival of its production and marketing campaign on a global perspective, reacts with the culture and state of the business. References Bowman, D., d'Estries, G. (2015).U.S. Patent No. D722,872. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Fitts, S. (2016).U.S. Patent No. D748,487. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Jeong, H. J., Paek, H. J., Lee, M. (2013). Corporate social responsibility effects on social network sites.Journal of Business Research,66(10), 1889-1895. Jones, C., Murray, W. E., Overton, J. (2017). FIJI Water, water everywhere: Global brands and democratic and social injustice.Asia Pacific Viewpoint.